This year, crop diseases and insect pests are expected to recur, and the Ministry of agriculture will implement prevention and control measures as soon as possible

According to the national crop diseases and insect pests monitoring and reporting network survey and expert consultation analysis, affected by high winter temperature, high soil moisture and other factors, crop diseases and insect pests in 2017 showed a trend of recurrence, and the area of occurrence was expected to increase by 9.7% over the previous year. The re occurrence of migratory pests is a great threat. The occurrence period of rice "two migration" pests was advanced and the generation number was increased. The occurrence area of rice planthopper was 27.5% higher than that of the previous year, and the occurrence area of rice leaf roller increased 26.6% in southeast coastal area, middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Yangtze River area along the Yangtze River. The results showed that the occurrence of oriental migratory locust, Tibetan migratory locust and Asian migratory locust continued to moderate and light, but high density locust damage might occur in some parts of the Yellow River, Yalong River and Jinsha River Valley. The epidemic risk of air borne diseases is high. The results showed that wheat scab continued to be prevalent in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Yangtze River Huaihe River and the Huanghuai River, and the area needed to be prevented and controlled was basically the same as that of the previous year; wheat stripe rust was more prevalent in Jianghan Plain, Hanshui River Basin, southern, northwestern and southwestern parts of the Huanghuai River, with an increase of 31.3% over the previous year; rice blast existed in the southwest, Jiangnan, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Northeast China The incidence area of potato late blight increased by 20.0% compared with the previous year; potato late blight continued to focus on the epidemic in the east of southwest, north of northeast, north of North China and most of northwest, and the occurrence area was basically the same as that of last year. The rice false smut was seriously prevalent in the south of the Yangtze River, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the north of Southwest China. Frequent diseases and insect pests continued to recur. The results showed that wheat aphids were more serious or more serious in the main wheat producing areas of Huang Huai Hai, northwest and southwest of China, with an increase of 12.0% over the previous year; rice borers occurred more frequently in some rice areas in the south of the Yangtze River; rice sheath blight occurred more frequently in the south of the Yangtze River and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the northern part of the southwest and the northwest of the Yangtze River The occurrence area of corn borer increased by 1.8% compared with the previous year; the occurrence of corn borer was more serious in the northeast, northwest and southwest, and moderate in most other corn producing areas, with an increase of 5.3% over the previous year. We should carry out the work of the Ministry of agricultural diseases and insect pests prevention and control in order to reduce the damage caused by crop diseases and insect pests. First, strengthen monitoring and early warning. We organized 1030 regional stations for crop diseases and insect pests prediction in China, strengthened the monitoring and investigation in the source areas of diseases and insect pests, the transitional zones of migratory epidemics, and perennial recurrent areas, so as to accurately grasp the occurrence dynamics of diseases and insect pests, and timely release the forecast information and Prevention and control technology of diseases and insect pests. Second, strengthen green prevention and control. We will vigorously promote the green prevention and control technology mode based on physical control and biological control. Third, strengthen the rule of unified defense. Support crop pest control service organizations, relying on pesticide and pharmaceutical machinery production enterprises and new agricultural business entities, carry out technology integration, direct product supply and whole process service, and expand the coverage of integrated pest control. Fourth, strengthen scientific drug use. We will carry out the "training action on scientific drug use among the backbone farmers in 100 counties" to train and popularize the knowledge and skills of scientific drug use. Fifth, strengthen supervision and guidance. Establish and improve the prevention and control supervision and expert tour guidance system to ensure that the prevention and control measures are in place and the prevention and control technical measures are implemented in the field.

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"Cultivated land quality grade" standard issued, cultivated land has national standard since then

On the afternoon of May 5, the reporter learned from a press conference held by the Ministry of agriculture that recently the national standard of cultivated land quality grade (GB / T 33469-2016) was approved and issued by the General Administration of quality supervision, inspection and Quarantine of the people's Republic of China (SASAC), and has been officially implemented since December 30, 2016. This is the first national standard of cultivated land quality grade in China, which provides scientific indicators and methods for the investigation, monitoring and evaluation of cultivated land quality. Cultivated land is the "lifeblood" of food production. Due to the situation of large population and little land, the protection of cultivated land in China has been under great pressure. At present, China is in the stage of industrialization and urbanization, and the pressure of protecting cultivated land is increasing. Zeng Yande, director of the planting management department of the Ministry of agriculture, said that the protection of cultivated land is mainly reflected in two aspects: quantity stability and quality improvement. We will implement the strictest cultivated land protection system and keep the red line of 1.865 billion mu of cultivated land. At the same time, it is also necessary to implement the protection and improvement of cultivated land quality, carry out soil improvement, fertility improvement, treatment and repair, and improve the quality of cultivated land. According to Zeng Yande, from the current point of view, the requirements of quantity protection are clear and specific, but the importance of quality protection is not enough and the requirements are unclear. For example, when implementing the balance of occupation and compensation of cultivated land in some places, the phenomenon of occupying paddy field to supplement dry land still exists. The quality of cultivated land is also changing under the influence of many factors. Only by grasping the physical and chemical properties and quality change trend of cultivated land in time can we better protect the quality of cultivated land. As the cultivated land quality is invisible and progressive, it is urgent to formulate scientific, reasonable, universal and feasible evaluation standards. In 2015, with the support of the National Committee of standards, the Ministry of Agriculture organized the development of standards. "Cultivated land quality grade" fills in the gap of lack of unified standards in the current national level of cultivated land quality evaluation, provides methods and basis for the assessment of cultivated land quality grade, and also helps to improve the balance system of cultivated land occupation and compensation, and effectively control the quality acceptance of supplementary cultivated land. "Cultivated land quality grade" put forward that from the perspective of agricultural production, the cultivated land fertility, soil health status and the ability of field infrastructure to meet the sustainable output and quality safety of agricultural products were evaluated, and the cultivated land quality was divided into 10 grades. The quality of cultivated land in the first grade land is the highest, and that in the tenth grade land is the lowest. According to the relevant person in charge of the National Standards Commission, the release and implementation of the standard has realized the unification of national cultivated land quality evaluation technical standards, which is conducive to guiding all localities to reasonably adjust the agricultural production layout according to the quality of cultivated land, relieve the pressure on resources and environment, and improve the quality and safety level of agricultural products. According to the national comprehensive agricultural regionalization, combined with the characteristics of cultivated land and the distribution characteristics of soil types in different regions, the cultivated land in the whole country is divided into nine regions: Northeast China, Inner Mongolia and the areas along the Great Wall, Huang Huai Hai, Loess Plateau, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, southwest, South China, Gansu new area and Qinghai Tibet region. The evaluation indexes of each region are composed of 13 basic indexes And 6 regional complementary indicators, and gives the meaning of 19 evaluation indicators, acquisition methods, classification criteria and so on. In the next step, the Ministry of agriculture, together with the National Standards Commission, will establish a monitoring and Protection Agency for cultivated land quality under the guidance of the national standard of cultivated land quality grade, and improve the regular release of the bulletin of cultivated land quality grade and the annual report system of cultivated land quality monitoring. During the 13th Five Year Plan period, we will focus on the grain production functional areas and important agricultural

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Rural land reform: keeping ownership and freeing management

As an important task of comprehensively deepening rural reform, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the opinions on steadily promoting the reform of rural collective property right system at the end of 2016, which marks the formal and comprehensive start of rural collective property right system reform. The main purpose of the reform is to endow farmers with six rights and powers, including possession, income, paid withdrawal, mortgage, guarantee and inheritance rights. Since 2009, China has determined 29 counties (cities, districts) to carry out rural collective property rights reform pilot. In the pilot areas, the work was carried out smoothly when the farmers were given the right of possession and income of the shares of collective assets. However, in the pilot projects of mortgage, guarantee, inheritance, especially the realization of paid withdrawal right, the reform encountered "tough bones". In this regard, the "opinions" for the first time made clear that it is necessary to "explore the conditions and procedures for farmers to withdraw their shares of collective assets with compensation. At this stage, the paid withdrawal of shares of collective assets held by farmers shall not exceed the scope of the collective economic organization, and can be transferred within the collective or redeemed by the collective." That is to say, when farmers withdraw their shares of collective assets in the future, the scope of transfer objects will be strictly limited within the collective economic organization. The starting point of such restrictions is to protect the basic rights of farmers. Chen Xiaohua, Vice Minister of agriculture, said that there is a big difference between rural collective economic organizations and other economic organizations. According to the law, its property belongs to the collective ownership of its members. At the same time, the rural collective economy has prominent community nature, which is mainly manifested in the collective ownership of land and other basic means of production. In view of this particularity, in order to protect the interests of all members of the collective, it is particularly necessary to prevent the encroachment of external capital. For a long time, a small number of people in rural collective, especially village cadres, embezzle, embezzle, damage, squander rural collective assets, and "petty officials' huge corruption" are not uncommon. At the same time, the external capital has been on the rural internal resources, especially land resources. Many localities violate the regulations and introduce industrial and commercial enterprises to illegally expropriate the collective land of farmers, which seriously infringes on the interests of collective members. In this environment, exploring the paid withdrawal of collective assets held by farmers is bound to attract a new round of external capital. Therefore, this kind of restriction cannot be broken through at this stage. The reform is not to "divide" the collective assets, let alone the collective economy. It should be noted that collective ownership is an important part of China's public economy. General secretary Xi Jinping made clear at the Forum on rural reform in Xiaogangcun last year that in deepening the rural reform in the new situation, we must adhere to the collective ownership of rural land. The first line of the four red line of rural reform is "we can not change the collective ownership of rural land". This means that no matter how the reform of the rural collective property rights system is promoted, the rural collective ownership must be adhered to, and the external capital can not enter at will, which is the unshakable basic principle, otherwise some basic rights of rural collective members will be damaged. Of course, the transfer and transfer of collective assets are not the same thing. On the premise of keeping the bottom line, the right to operate rural collective assets can be enlivened, and its circulation in the open market can be promoted. The Opinions also put forward that local governments, especially counties and townships, should be encouraged to establish a property rights transfer and trading market in line with the actual needs of rural areas by relying on the platforms of collective asset supervision and management and land management right transfer management, and carry out circulation transactions such as rural contracted land management right, collective forest right, land use right of "Four Wastes", agricultural intellectual property rights, and leasing of rural collective operating assets. At the same time, through the market-oriented circulation of management rights, the farmers' income can be effectively improved, and many purposes can be achieved, such as improving the land utilization rate, transferring the surplus rural labor force and promoting the process of agricultural industrialization.

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